```
import warnings
# Ignore numpy dtype warnings. These warnings are caused by an interaction
# between numpy and Cython and can be safely ignored.
# Reference: https://stackoverflow.com/a/40846742
warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", message="numpy.dtype size changed")
warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", message="numpy.ufunc size changed")
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pandas as pd
import seaborn as sns
%matplotlib inline
import ipywidgets as widgets
from ipywidgets import interact, interactive, fixed, interact_manual
sns.set()
sns.set_context('talk')
np.set_printoptions(threshold=20, precision=2, suppress=True)
pd.options.display.max_rows = 7
pd.options.display.max_columns = 8
pd.set_option('precision', 2)
# This option stops scientific notation for pandas
# pd.set_option('display.float_format', '{:.2f}'.format)
```

```
students = pd.read_csv('roster.csv')
students['Name'] = students['Name'].str.lower()
```

# 1.2. Exploratory Data Analysis¶

The term Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA for short) refers to the process of discovering traits about our data that inform future analysis.

Here’s the `students`

table from the previous page:

```
students
```

Name | Role | |
---|---|---|

0 | keeley | Student |

1 | john | Student |

2 | bryan | Student |

... | ... | ... |

276 | ernesto | Waitlist Student |

277 | athan | Waitlist Student |

278 | michael | Waitlist Student |

279 rows × 2 columns

We are left with a number of questions. How many students are in this roster? What does the `Role`

column mean? We conduct EDA in order to understand our data more thoroughly.

Oftentimes, we explore the data by repeatedly posing questions as we uncover more information.

**How many students are in our dataset?**

```
print("There are", len(students), "students on the roster.")
```

```
There are 279 students on the roster.
```

A natural follow-up question: does this dataset contain the complete list of students? In this case, this table contains all students in one semester’s offering of Data 100.

**What is the meaning of the Role field?**

We often example the field’s data in order to understand the field itself.

```
students['Role'].value_counts().to_frame()
```

Role | |
---|---|

Student | 237 |

Waitlist Student | 42 |

We can see here that our data contain not only students enrolled in the class at the time but also the students on the waitlist. The `Role`

column tells us whether each student is enrolled.

**What about the names? How can we summarize this field?**

In Data 100 we will work with many different kinds of data, including numerical, categorical, and text data. Each type of data has its own set of tools and techniques.

A quick way to start understanding the names is to examine the lengths of the names.

```
sns.distplot(students['Name'].str.len(),
rug=True,
bins=np.arange(12),
axlabel="Number of Characters")
plt.xlim(0, 12)
plt.xticks(np.arange(12))
plt.ylabel('Proportion per character');
```

This visualization shows us that most names are between 3 and 9 characters long. This gives us a chance to check whether our data seem reasonable — if there were many names that were 1 character long we’d have good reason to re-examine our data.

## 1.2.1. What’s in a Name?¶

Although this dataset is rather simple, we will soon see that first names alone can reveal quite a bit about our group of students.