# 10.2. What to Look For in a Distribution¶

Visual displays of a feature can better help us see patterns in the observations as compared to direct examination of the numbers or strings themselves. The simple rug plot locates each observation as a “yarn” in the “rug” along an axis. The rug plot can be useful for a handful of observations, but it soon gets difficult to distinguish high density (most populated) regions with, say, even 100 observations. Figure 10.2 below shows a rug plot of the 135 non-null longevity values for dog breeds.

```dogs = pd.read_csv('data/akc.csv')
```
```sns.rugplot(dogs['longevity'], height=0.2)
``` Fig. 10.2 Rug plot of dog breed longevity (years). One yarn is placed for each breed at the value for longevity. Notice density of values appears as a thick part of the rug.

Although we can see an unusually large value that’s greater than 16, it’s hard to compare the density of yarns in different regions. The histogram (left) and the density curve (right) shown in Figure 10.3 below give a much better sense of the density of observations.

```fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols = 2, figsize=(10, 4))
sns.histplot(data=dogs, x="longevity", stat="density", kde=False, ax=axes)
plt.tight_layout();
``` Fig. 10.3 The histogram and density plot convey similar information about the distribution of longevity for dog breeds. The main mode is at about 12 years, and there is a shoulder to the left of the mode in the 9-11 year range. Many breeds have a longevity 1 to 3 years below the mode of 12.

In both plots, we see that the distribution of longevity is asymmetric. There is one main mode around 12 years and a shoulder in the 9-11 year range, meaning that while 12 is the most “popular” longevity, many breeds have a longevity 1 to 3 years below 12. We also see a small secondary mode around 7, and a few breeds with longevity as long as 14-16 years.

When interpreting a histogram or density curve, we examine: the symmetry and skewness of the distribution; the number, location, and size of high-frequency regions (modes); the length of tails (often in comparison to the normal curve); gaps where no values are observed; and unusually large or anomalous values. Figure 10.4 provides a characterization of a distribution with several of these features. When we read a distribution, we connect the features that we see in the plot to the quantity measured. Fig. 10.4 Example density plot that connects qualities of a distribution to the shape of the density curve.

As another example, the distribution of the number of ailments for a breed of dog, appears in Figure 10.5. A value of zero means this breed has no genetic ailments, one corresponds to one genetic ailment, and so on. From the histogram, we see that the distribution of ailments is unimodal with a peak at zero. We also see that the distribution is heavily skewed right, with a long right tail indicating that some few breeds have between four and nine genetic ailments. Although quantitative, ailments is discrete because only a few integer values are possible. For this reason, we centered the bins on the integers, so the bin from 1.5 to 2.5 contains only those breeds with two ailments. We also made the rightmost bin wider. We lumped into one bin all of the breeds with four to nine ailments. When bin counts are small, we use wider bins to further smooth the distribution because we do not want to read too much into the fluctuations of small numbers. In this case, none of the breeds have six or seven ailments, but some had four, five, eight and nine.

```bins = [-0.5, 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 9.5]
sns.histplot(data=dogs, x="ailments", bins=bins, stat="density");
``` Fig. 10.5 Histogram of the number of genetic ailments a breed has. Notice the bins are centered on the integers to make it clear that each of the four bins on the left represents a single value. The rightmost bin lumps together all breeds with four to nine ailments.

Density in the y-axis. Notice that the y-axis in Figure 10.3 and Figure 10.5 are both labeled “Density”. The term “density” implies that the total area of the bars in the histogram is 1. We can think of the histogram as a skyline with tall buildings having denser populations. To find the fraction of observations in any bin, we compute the area of the rectangle. For example, for the rectangle that runs from 3.5 to 9.5 in Figure 5, we take the product: 6 (width) × 0.017 (height), which is about 0.10 or 10%. If all of the bins are the same width, then the “skyline” will look the same whether the y-axis represents counts or density. Changing the y-axis to counts in Figure 10.5 gives a misleading picture of a very large rectangle in the right tail.

With a histogram we hide the details of individual yarns in a rug plot in order to view the general features of the distribution. Smoothing refers to this process of replacing sets of points with rectangles; we choose not to show every single point in the dataset in order to reveal broader trends. We might want to smooth out these points because: this is a sample and we believe that other values near the ones we observed are reasonable; and/or we want to focus on general structure rather than individual observations. Without the rug, we can’t tell where the points are in a bin.

The smooth density curves also have the property that the total area under the curve sums to 1. The density curve uses a smooth kernel to spread out the individual yarns. See the Exercises for a precise definition.

Bar Plot ≠ Histogram. With qualitative data, the bar plot serves a similar role as the histogram. The bar plot gives a visual presentation of the “popularity” or frequency of different groups. However, we cannot interpret the shape of the bar plot in the same way as a histogram. Tails and symmetry do not make sense in this setting. Also, the frequency of a category is represented by the height of the bar, and the width carries no information about the distribution. The two bar charts in Figure 10.6 display identical information, the only difference is in the width and color of the bars. In the extreme, the line plot on the right in Figure 10.6 eliminates the bars entirely and represents each count by a single dot. (Without the connecting lines, the right most figure is a dot chart.) Reading this line plot, we see there are few breeds that are not suitable for children.

```# First, let's cast the numeric categories to strings
kids = (dogs['children']
.replace({ 1.0: 'high', 2.0: 'medium', 3.0: 'low' })
.rename('kid_suitable')
.dropna()
.to_frame()
)
kids
```
kid_suitable
0 low
1 high
2 medium
... ...
164 high
167 high
168 high

112 rows × 1 columns

```fig, axes = plt.subplots(ncols=3, figsize=(10, 4))
kids_counts = (kids
.groupby('kid_suitable')
.size()
.reindex(["low", "medium", "high"])
.rename('count')
)

# left plot
sns.countplot(data=kids, x="kid_suitable",
order=["low", "medium", "high"],
ax=axes)

# middle plot
kids_counts.plot(kind='bar', width=0.10, ax=axes)
axes.tick_params(axis='x', labelrotation=0)

# right plot
sns.pointplot(data=kids_counts.reset_index(),
x="kid_suitable", y="count", kind="point", ax=axes);

plt.setp(axes, ylim=(0, 75))
plt.tight_layout()
```  Fig. 10.6 These three plots convey the same information: the suitability of different breeds for children. The two on the left are bar plots and the rightmost is a line plot. The line plot has the advantage of making it easier for the eye to compare the three counts.

## 10.2.1. In the Next Section¶

Now that we have covered how to examine distributions of single features, we turn to the situation when we want to look at two features and how they relate.